BLOG : 集体诉讼在中国 / Class Actions in China

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The author is one of the Lab’s students, directly from China, Xintong Sha. 

English version below


集体诉讼(Class Action)在中国称为公益诉讼,包括民事公益诉讼和行政公益诉讼。民事公益诉讼又包括了环境公益诉讼和消费者公益诉讼。《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》(以下简称《民事诉讼法》)规定:环境保护法、消费者权益保护法等法律规定的机关和有关组织对污染环境、侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的行为,根据民事诉讼法第五十五条规定提起公益诉讼,符合下列条件的,人们法院应当受理:(一)有明确的被告;(二)有具体的诉讼请求;(三)有社会公共利益收到损害的初步证据;(四)属于人们法院受理民事诉讼的范围和受诉人民法院管辖。《民事诉讼法》第五十五条规定“对污染环境、侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的行为,法律规定的机关和有关组织可以向人民法院提起诉讼。”后该条在2017年民事诉讼法修改后,新增一款,作为第二款“人民检察院在履行职责中发现生态环境和资源保护、食品药品安全领域侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的行为,在没有前款规定的集团和组织或者前款规定的机关和组织不提起诉讼的情况下,可以向人民法院提起诉讼。前款规定的机关或者组织提起诉讼的,人民检查院可以支持起诉。”奠定了人民检察院提起民事公益诉讼的主体资格的地位。


Class Actions in China

Class Action is called public interest litigation in China. It includes civil public interest litigation and administrative public interest litigation. Civil public interest litigation includes environmental and consumer protection issues.

The Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China, at its article 55, stipulates that:

The organs and relevant organizations stipulated in the laws such as the Environmental Protection Law and the Consumer Rights Protection Law have the right to sue for acts that damage the environment and the victims are numerous consumers and other types of acts that harm public interests. The court’s acceptance of the case includes the following conditions: 

(a) There is an identified defendant;

(b) There is a specific claim;

(c) There is preliminary evidence that the public interest has been harmed;

(d) It belongs to the scope of the court accepting a civil action and the jurisdiction of the responding court.

It has to be mentioned that this article of the Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China was revised in 2017. The original article 55 stipulated that “The relevant organizations that are required by law may bring lawsuits to the courts for acts that damage the environment, infringe the legitimate rights and interests of many consumers, and otherwise harm public interests”. The revised article includes, in addition, the following: “The damages of the public interest discovered by the procuratorate during the performance of its duties include: the damage to ecology, resources, and the legitimate rights and interests of consumers”.

In China, groups and organizations can only file a suit under the Environmental Protection Law and the Consumers Legitimate Rights Protection Act if they get an approval from an examination court. The newly added content enables the procuratorate to be qualified to sue for other civil public interest issues.

Ce contenu a été mis à jour le 20 juin 2018 à 9 h 53 min.


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